If we start by looking at the caviar, we will see that it takes several steps. Briefly note that the extraction of the eggs from the belly of the female sturgeon is first carried out, then the eggs are sieved before being washed and drained. They are subsequently sorted according to their color, size and firmness, and are covered with salt before drying and conditioning. It should also be noted that some manufacturers of cosmetics use caviar for the manufacture of some of their products because it would be rich in natural components promoting the revitalization and restructuring of the skin. The caviar contains a nutritive substance called vitelline (which means life, ie "vita" in Latin). Vitelline is known for its richness in phosphoproteins and phospholipids, essential components of cells. But even if all this could justify the use of caviar in cosmetics, the advertising reason is the one that seems to be the most plosible in the sense that the word "caviar" automatically confers to any product a notion of luxury. To say a word about the legislation concerning caviar in France, it should be noted here that the term 'caviar' in the case of fish eggs can only be used to designate sturgeon eggs (L. Circuit 12 March 1957). This is a position that has been repeatedly reaffirmed particularly for trade names using the word caviar or caviar imitations. However, this regulation is different in other European countries where the word caviar can be used to designate fish eggs, for example, but always accompanied by the species concerned.
Thus, like the names "foie gras" or "truffle" in their definitions, compositions and uses, the appellation caviar enjoys identical protection. And even if the use of the term caviar for other products is quite common in many countries, including European countries. Sometimes we hear of ant caviar, snail caviar, trout caviar, salmon caviar, and so on. If we try to see the main producers of caviar in the world, we can cite for wild caviar Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan and Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea. Because of the overfishing and pollution of the Black Sea, Romania and Ukraine also export, but in smaller quantities. Besides these large caviar exporters, many other parts of the world also produce caviar through the raising. These include France, where this business is growing rapidly (in particular in Perigord and Gironde), the United States, Israel, Italy, Spain, Uruguay, Bulgaria, Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia and China. Let us now try to make a small enumeration of the different types of caviar and start with the sturgeon eggs. At this level it will be noted that the caviar varies according to the species of sturgeon from which the eggs are drawn. The most common types of caviar in this category are sevruga (Acipenser stellatus), osciometry (Acipenser persicus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), beluga (Huso huso) and rearing caviar (Acipenser transmontanus Close to the osciètre and Acipenser baerii which has a taste close to the sevruga). It should be noted that eggs of oscietre are recognized by their size and light color (these eggs are smaller than those of the beluga whale, which is the largest sturgeon with the largest eggs and also the most expensive).
After the sturgeon eggs used for making caviar, we also have eggs from other species of fish that are also used to make caviar. But we do not have only fish eggs that are used in this sense, for example Burgundy snail eggs are also called caviar. However, since it is not fish, snail fish caviar is not within the scope of the fish egg legislation. The decree of 24 November 1962 stipulates that the words "caviar and caviar substitutes" only concern products similar to caviar and made from fish eggs which are not sturgeons. Another product called caviar is called boutargue or poutargue, which refers to dried eggs of fish of the family Mugilidae (Mugil cephalus, Mulet), also known as Mediterranean caviar or white caviar. Salmon eggs are also sometimes called red caviar. Same as the lump eggs which are of great popularity but very distant in sensation and taste of the caviar, colored in black or red. They are especially very cheap. Let's not forget that the appellation caviar is also given, but in French only, to "aubergine caviar". But as is done in the English-speaking countries, we would have had to say aubergine in caviar. There are, however, certain appellations which are not at all valid such as, for example, caviar of sweet pepper, courgette caviar, caviar of dried tomatoes or seaweed caviar.
Let us stop at this level for our introduction to caviar and note in summary that this is a highly prized product because it symbolizes luxury in every sense of the word. Its cost all the time is very high so that not everyone can afford the pleasure of eating caviar. To do it at least once in his life is still to be tried!
Manufacture of caviar
The first step in the manufacture of caviar is the extraction of the roe. To do this, the sturgeon after being caught is hoisted from the landing stage along a sloping slope and installed on a metal work surface. It can also be conveyed on a metal trolley before being installed on the work surface. The female is then numbed before washing and opening her belly with great precision to extract the rogue which is immediately weighed. It should be noted at this level that this operation must be carried out while the female sturgeon is still alive insofar as its organism releases after its death a chemical substance that has a bad impact on the eggs. After this first step of extraction of the roe, we now pass to the second stage which corresponds to the washing and filtering of the eggs. At this level, the first step is to use a fine sieve with mesh sizes of 2 to 4 mm to sieve the caviar grains. Thus, the eggs, leaving the envelope which held them to the rogue, glide gently through the meshes. After this phase, a further washing of the grains is carried out before they are drained on sieves. They are then selected according to their smell, their size, their color, the firmness of their membrane but also their flavor. And it is precisely on the basis of these criteria that it will be decided to make these eggs caviar first or second quality.
After the stage of washing and filtering the eggs, we now proceed to that of their salting. There, after sorting the eggs, the weight of the caviar is again determined in order to determine the exact quantity of salt to be added. This is a very important operation in the manufacture of caviar, which is why it is carried out by a specialist called the "master". Indeed, just as the quality of the raw caviar, the quantity and the quality of the salt used are also very important for the final product. A quantity of salt varying between 2.8 and 4% of the weight of the caviar will thus be added for a "malossol" result, that is to say "little salty". Now, to allow the salt to distribute homogeneously, as soon as it is added the caviar is quickly stirred. Rapid mixing is very important because a little too long mixing results in a sticky caviar, while firmness is very important in determining the quality of the caviar. Hence the great importance of salt quality as well as the experience of the master who determines the amount of salt essential for caviar. The final key step in the manufacture of caviar is packaging. At this stage, after caviar has been thoroughly salted, it is dried on horsehair screens to allow the excess water absorbed by the salt, known as brine, to drain off. This will cause weight loss of eggs by 5 to 6%. We must now take care of the original metal cans which serve as protection for the caviar. These boxes are coated inside a special protective coating. They also allow the air to escape to the maximum when closing thanks to a styling cover. In order not to let the caviar lose its softness and does not sag, the filling of the boxes must proceed as quickly as possible. A spatula is used by hand to perform this operation.
It is therefore after these different stages that one can affix the famous strip of rubber that hermetically closes the receptacle. It is in these conditions that the caviar can be sent by air to the workshops where they are stored at ideal temperature, sorted, selected box by box before bringing the caviar to maturation. According to the requests, the boxes will then be repackaged. Formerly, the boxes of origin were placed in wooden barrels. And this is the end of our little article on the manufacture of caviar.
Speaking of the sturgeons, let us begin by looking at their food. In this regard, it should be noted that sturgeons are fish that feed almost exclusively on worms and roots that they manage to locate thanks to the barbels under their muzzles. Some species, such as the Huso, for example, also eat smaller fish. It should also be noted that sturgeon do not reach sexual maturity before 8 to 16 years for males and 6 to 14 years for females, so that the number of sturgeons that reach maturity is significantly higher in Where they are protected from any predator and danger. Let us now take a look at the great families of sturgeons and note that there are at least 24 different groups grouped into 4 genera, namely the false scaphyrhynchus (Pseudoscaphirhynchus), the scaphirhynchus (scaphirhynchus), the sturgeon stricto sensu (Acipenser ) And the Belouga (Huso). The sturgeon is found all over the world because of its highly valued fish status, which means it has been brought to many parts of the world. It is thus possible to find species living in both salt and fresh water. In the Adriatic Sea, for example, there is the Sturgeon of the Adriatic or Italian Sturgeon (acipencer naccarii), and as a severely threatened species of extinction in the Basin of Love one has the Kaluga or Gd Sturgeon of Siberia ( Huso dauricus).
Let us now turn to a particular type of sturgeon which is also the most common sturgeon, namely the Acipenser sturio of the Acipenseridae family. Like many of the 24 species that make up his family, he is threatened with extinction. Acipenser sturio is the largest migratory fish frequenting French rivers and rivers. This type of sturgeon is devoid of scales, has a heterocercal caudal fin, a little ossified skeleton, as well as specialized organs such as a ventral mouth and barbels. These are developed in relation to its diet which is largely composed of benthic animals. This European sturgeon was much sought after at the beginning of the century for the manufacture of caviar, and since 1982 it is the object of a total protection throughout the French territory. However, this protection is particularly difficult insofar as its biological and ecological characteristics are still poorly known. And this makes it even more difficult to put in place effective management measures for its survival. However, it is known that the most common sturgeon produces a number of eggs that average an estimated 120,000 / kg, that it can live up to 40 years with a late sexual maturity (16 to 18 years for Females and 12-14 years for males), and that at adulthood it can range from 3 to 5 meters for a weight ranging from 300 to 500 kg.
Let us stop at this level and note in short that the sturgeon species are quite numerous (at least 24 large families). However, many of these species are being extinct because of overfishing. Fish farming is therefore a very promising solution for the conservation of sturgeon species. The breeding of this type of fish must therefore be encouraged for the preservation of the good old caviar!
Presentation of the main caviar producing countries
For several centuries already the caviar is savored. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (4th century BC) would be the one who mentioned the oldest source in making mention. The Romans and the Persians consumed caviar but boiled. Medical virtues were also attributed to him. It is also reported that in the Christian Middle Ages caviar was more consumed in place of meat during fasts in Russian regions. His consumption was therefore in a religious context. It was during the reign of the Tsars that the caviar enjoyed the greatest glory in Russia. The Tsars were indeed all known for their great weakness for the caviar which they consumed in exaggerated proportions. It was at this time that caviar, initially the food of the poor, became the food of kings and began to build a great reputation. The caviar ended by becoming an exclusive product to which only the nobility and the clergy had right. But following the democratization and liberalization of society, the improvement of the living conditions of the middle class will cause it to also want to display its opulence through the consumption of caviar. Hence the symbolic status it now has. The status of caviar gained further hill in the 1980s and 1990s thanks to the yuppies. But this seriously affected the sturgeon species because of overfishing.
Today the main countries exporting caviar are Russia and Iran. But because of the chaotic situation in Russia with the "mafia of caviar", it is Iran that is currently at the top of the ranking and is known to produce the best caviar. Astrakhan is the main region of production. However, until the 20th century many other countries also produced caviar. But because of the overfishing of the sturgeon in all these countries, it is currently on the list of endangered animals. It can still be said today that Iran and Russia are no longer the only countries producing good caviar since sturgeon breeding also occurs in many countries like France for example . But this does not reassure at all the price of the caviar on the market because it remains above all a luxury product. It will be said that the most affordable prices are proposed on the side of Aquitaine. The Aquitaine caviar comes from the Acipenser baerii (freshwater sturgeon). It is a caviar that has nutty flavors and long in the mouth because of its delicate salting. It has gray-colored anthracite to golden brown skin and has very fine grains. It should be noted that in some countries, caviar is sold in other countries as eggs. Other countries prohibit this practice and require explicit mention in this case that the eggs are taken from other fish besides the sturgeon. These are small eggs which are very cheap, less rare than the real caviar and which can very well serve as a substitute for caviar during the holidays.
We conclude that the main producers of caviar in the world are Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan and Iran, which are residents of the Caspian Sea. Because of the overfishing and pollution of the Black Sea, Romania and Ukraine also export, but in smaller quantities. Outside these countries many others produce caviar but in small quantities.
All on caviar
The beluga lives in the icy waters of the Arctic Ocean. It is a cetacean with a very long silhouette. It is part of the family Monodontidae and has instead a dorsal fin a small ridge with bumps. And if it is able to swim without problems over a very long period under the ice pack, it is because of this particular characteristic. It should also be noted that the term "Beluga" (Delphinapterus leucas) or "Beluga" is derived from "white" Russian, whence also the nickname of white dolphin of this species of sturgeon. But the beluga also bears the names "sea canary" and "white whale", in the first case because of the whistling and the strange screams it grows. Another characteristic of beluga that we can also mention is its particularly smooth skin that is red-brown in the newborn and "creamy white" in adults. The new born until the age of 3 years will see its color turn to the gray slate. The female is smaller than the male and gives birth to a single baby after a one-year pregnancy. The young person does not become fully independent until 2 years. The total population of belugas is estimated at about 100,000, about half of which is in the Beaufort Sea. The rest of the population is mainly distributed in Canadian Arctic waters, Behring Sea and Hudson Bay. There is no need to add that his future is very much threatened.
Belugas feed on benthic fish and molluscs. They live in the subarctic and arctic seas in groups of 20 to 200 individuals and migrate regularly in the fall from north to south and then return to spring in the icy waters. It should also be noted that the Beluga has one of the most sophisticated sonar of all cetaceans. Facing the submerged ice channels that form a real underwater labyrinth, this sonar is very essential for it to be oriented and to be located. By swimming under the ice, when the ice is not more than 15 centimeters thick, it smashed it with its head to breathe. Also, although it haunts mostly, the high seas or coastal waters, the beluga can also go up some rivers. It is found in the St. Lawrence or the Yukon River. It is very amusing, when the beluga comes to surface, to look at the variations in the expression of his "face". He is strangely thinking of man because of his wide range of mimicry. Without any exaggeration, we will say that it is even possible to know if he is in a bad mood or if he smiles! But, like many other cetaceans, the beluga is the victim of a very intense hunt, particularly from Norway and Japan. And if it questions its future, pollution is another even more worrying danger at this time. In Canada, for example, the contamination of belugas by industrial and domestic discharges is such that when their bodies fail, they are treated with as much precaution as in the case of toxic waste.
Here is a bit for what there is to say about the Beluga which is one of the species of sturgeon producing the best caviars. It is important to remember that, like many other species of the same category, beluga is much threatened and rigorous measures must be taken if we want to keep it among our aquatic species and still enjoy its unparalleled caviar.
The caviar produced by the Oscietre is dark amber to golden. It is a caviar that the greatest connoisseurs appreciate and which was once the prerogative of the tables of the princes of Iran. Featuring a beautiful texture and incredibly sensual, the caviar produced by the oscieter rolls tenderly on the tongue to explode with notes of seafood and dried fruit. The oscieter has grains of various shapes with sometimes nutty flavors. In the family of oscitres, we have the gueldenstaedti found particularly on the shores of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, the persicus which is more on the Iranian shores and the Acipenser güldenstaedti which like its cousin the Acipenser Persicus occurs naturally throughout the Caspian Sea. The Acipenser güeldenstaedti gives particularly sensuous and firm caviar grains with a slightly iodized taste, on notes of cashew nuts and bitter orange.
This is what we can note concerning the oscietta, one of the species of sturgeon whose eggs are used for the manufacture of caviar. As you know, the qualities of caviar are different because some are superior to others, and caviar oscieter is part of the top of the range!
It can be noted that the Sevruga sturgeon can measure up to 2 meters long and weigh 18 kilograms on average. The life expectancy of this sturgeon is 30 years and reaches maturity at 9 years. A Sturgeon Sevruga can produce up to 3 kilograms of caviar. The sevruga is also made up of grains of dark gray color, of small size and an unstoppable flavor. The dishes based on this caviar are best enjoyed without any addition. Squirrel caviar can also be served on blinis or on roasted canapés, covered with fresh cream. Some people prefer to taste it on a white of hard-boiled egg, accompanied by a filet of lemon and butter. Vodka accompanied with shallot and butter is also appreciated by the amateurs.
If you are looking for quality caviar and symbolizing luxury to perfection, we particularly recommend Sevruga caviar. It is indeed one of the best in terms of quality but also in terms of flavor and richness of nutrients. Order caviar sevruga and you will not regret it!
Formerly the Soviet Union could produce up to 150 tons of black caviar a year, the equivalent of a very large share of the world market, but today this production has officially fallen to 28 tons per year. Officially the proportion of sturgeon fished also fell to 1,000 tons, whereas it was 20,000 tons when the USSR still existed. However, it is estimated that about 1,000 tonnes of sturgeon are caught by poachers outside the official circuit, which is equivalent to about 30% of the world market for caviar. If we now try to take a look at Russian caviar on a global scale, we will see that Russia has not succeeded, like Iran, in establishing a system of centralized and regular supply of caviar High quality. According to western scholars studying Russia's fall from its rank as the world's largest producer of caviar, the difficulty faced by its suppliers in delivering goods in a timely manner would have contributed to this downfall. Russian experts, meanwhile, explain the loss of Russia's leadership position because Western wholesalers tend to buy cheaper caviar from smugglers, not considering the quality that is significantly less Good than that of caviar. They further argue that the illegal production of Russian caviar is marketed under a brand identical to that of caviar produced in the standards, which would greatly contribute to the degradation of the prestige of Russian caviar.
If we now look at the future of Russian caviar, we shall see that it is rather promising since a society (Rosrybkhoz) has been set up to help save the species by promoting the reproduction of sturgeons and By raising them to a fishpond. This has resulted in an annual production of about 2 million tonnes of fish, which is twice the amount of European production. In this process, a special method is used to collect sturgeon eggs. This method keeps the fish alive and the eggs collected are fully used for breeding the species. Other experiments for the development of caviar breeding are under way in Russia, the results are not yet known. All this is a very good way for Russia to try to conquer the European market again and resume its position as world leader of caviar. This is also the best way to prevent unpackaged products from spreading further in the world and to combat smuggling. Indeed, the problem of the scarcity of sturgeons can not be solved by an international agreement prohibiting the sale of caviar. This would only encourage poachers and smugglers to redouble their activity and could increase the price of caviar on black markets.
We will conclude that Russian caviar was once the head of all the other productions in the world. Today he has been surpassed by Iranian caviar for different reasons according to Western experts and Russian experts. Measures are in the process of being taken by Russia to try to regain its leading position and this suggests a promising future for Russian caviar. However, in terms of quality and flavor, Russian caviar remains equal to itself!
The Iranian caviar
Because of the intensity of its taste, Iranian caviar remains by far the most appreciated by connoisseurs. To give you figures, we can take the example of the Iranian caviar in the 2005 fishery, which saw a spectacular rise in prices. The price of the Iranian caviar of the 2005 fishery has indeed reached the heights never explored since then. The Osciètre Premium was then at 3.726 € per kilo whereas it was at 2.360 € the previous year and at 1.400 € the year before. As for the Osciètre Classic it was at 3,366 € per kilo (public price) against 2,100 € the previous year. And this impressive success of Iranian caviar on the world market continues to be so far. If we now try to take a look at the finesse and quality that characterize the Iranian Caviar, we will begin by observing that Iranian caviar is really very nutritious. Indeed, the Caspian Sea from which the Iranian caviar originates has the reputation of sheltering very good sturgeons. This is in fact the best framework for the production of eggs by sturgeons.
Iranian caviar also has a low calorie content, but is particularly rich in lecithin (75%), good cholesterol (25%) and protein. Vitamins A, C, B2, B6, B12 and PP are also found in this caviar, which also contains pantothenic and follicular acids. On the other hand, we must not lose sight of the fact that caviar is a delicate and perishable product. Therefore, even if Iranian caviar is known for its unmatched quality, it must be kept in good condition to remain in good condition. The ideal storage environment remains a cold place where a temperature of 28 F or -2 C is preferred. Caviar can not freeze at these temperatures because of its high oil content. Depending on the date of manufacture, pasteurized caviar can be kept for example from 3 to 6 months. Finally, a box of caviar after opening should be consumed quickly, preferably within 3 days after opening.
We will end by saying that Iranian caviar if it is the best in the world is because the Caspian Sea production site is the best in the world and that its production is very well monitored and regulated by the Iranian government . Its cost in the market is not always within the reach of everyone, but its flavor remains by far the best in the world.
Caviar with Petrossian
The Petrossian brothers were born on the Iranian shore of the Caspian Sea and later raised on the Russian side before emigrating to France in order to continue their studies in law and medicine, The Russian Revolution of 1917. During the Roaring Twenties, Paris welcomed many Russian princes, aristocrats and intellectuals who also brought their culinary and artistic traditions: Kandinsky, Stravinsky, Diaghilev ... and naturally the Petrossian caviar. The two brothers first worked with César Ritz, Place Vendôme, who finally installed the caviar at the highest level of gastronomy thanks to the prestige of its receptions. For several decades now, Petrossian has continued to develop and diversify. It establishes around the world and with the best producers of privileged partnerships in order to offer its customers what is best in caviar.
If you are looking for the best caviars of the most prestigious species of sturgeon, it is in Petrossian that you will find them in its famous Imperial Selection. It is indeed in this remarkable strong selection that you will find the unique Sévruga, the excellent Ossetra and the incomparable Beluga in all their splendor. But apart from top-of-the-range caviar, Petrossian House also offers a wide variety of other delicacies, including natural or truffled foie gras, salmon and other smoked fish, as well as Petrossian teas and coffees, and Flavored chocolates. For each of these products you are assured of a quality requirement and a gastronomic superiority that have forged the fame of the Petrossian House throughout the world. By ordering your caviar at Petrossian, you are assured of always receiving an exceptional product of impeccable quality.
So if you are looking for the best caviar, no matter what type of caviar you want, contact Petrossian and you will not be disappointed. The great expertise and seriousness of the company assure you indeed the best quality for all the products that you will buy from the House. For your Caviar treat yourself to the best, treat yourself to the Petrossian!